The Five Gracious Blessings Enjoyed
Those Who are Newly Born Again
by Joseph D. McPherson
"Do we ordinarily represent a justified state so great and happy as it is?"
"Perhaps not," replies, Mr. Wesley. "A believer, walking in the light, is inexpressibly great and happy."
The questioner again asks, "Should we not have care of depreciating justification, in order to exalt the state of full
"Undoubtedly we should beware of this;" replies Mr. Wesley, "for one may insensibly slide into it."
"How," asks the questioner, "shall we effectually avoid it?"
"When we are going to speak of entire sanctification," says Mr. Wesley, "let us first describe the blessings of the justified state, as strongly as possible."(1)
This exchange of questions and answers was recorded in the Minutes of an early Methodist conference Mr. Wesley held with his preachers at Bristol, England in 1745. It illustrates the immense importance once placed upon the transformation wrought by the Holy Spirit in the initial conversion of a penitent's heart and soul. Mr. Wesley and other early Methodist leaders never minimized nor diminished the great work of justification and regeneration in order to exalt entire sanctification as too many are found to do in the modern holiness movement.
The Day of Pentecost ushered in the most glorious of dispensations--the dispensation of the Holy Spirit. Since then the third person of the trinity has had a major role in the total process of mans salvation. In fact the whole scheme of salvation has been greatly elevated and rendered more glorious than at any time during former dispensations.
Too often it is thought that the Holy Ghost is primarily, if not only, involved in a believers entire sanctification. To be sure, He is involved in the process of sanctifying believers wholly. However, He is also involved in convicting sinners of sin, drawing them to the Savior with strong desires, assisting them in repentance toward God and the placing of their trust in
the Lord Jesus. When the conditions of true repentance and vital faith are met, the Holy Spirit then gives new life and
power over sin.
Since the rise of the modern holiness movement the emphasis has been decidedly focused on the second work of grace. However, while exalting the work of entire sanctification there has, at the same time, been a shameful and unscriptural
minimizing of that great work of the Spirit in the initial conversion process. To a growing number of serious students of the New Testament and early Wesleyan teachings, this has become a concern of major proportions. Such an imbalance must be
checked if Scriptural holiness is to flourish again. It is a serious mistake to think of the first work of grace as consisting only of one blessing--that of forgiveness of sins. There are, in fact, several blessings which are included in what we often call the first work of grace or conversion. Let us briefly review these blessings.
1. Justification is the blessing most often mentioned as essential to conversion. It is an act by which forgiveness, or pardon of sins and acceptance with God is extended to the penitent. It is remission of sins that are past. Justification is said to be that which God does for us. It is based entirely upon what Christ has done and suffered for us. Upon condition of true repentance and faith, God for Christ's sake forgives and pardons all past sins so that one appears before Him as though he had never sinned. (2)
2. Regeneration is a second blessing experienced by converts in the first work of grace. Whereas justification is that which God does for us, regeneration is the work of the Holy Spirit within us. At the same time the sinner is justified he is also made anew by regeneration. "Therefore if any man be in Christ, he is a new creature: old things are passed away; behold all things are become new" (2 Cor. 5:17). The sinner is raised from spiritual death to spiritual life. The soul that was dead to God is now made newly alive. Although all were born in sin, those who experience the new birth are born anew from above, born of the Spirit. They have been quickened to spiritual life.
Writing to the Colossian church, the apostle Paul says, "And you, being dead in your sins and the uncircumcision of your flesh, hath he quickened together with him, having forgiven you all your trespasses" (Col. 2:13). Reference to both justification and regeneration are found here--the forgiveness of trespasses and the quickening to life of the believer's soul in regeneration. In Titus 3:5, the same apostle speaks of believers being "saved by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost."
Where justification takes away the guilt of sin, regeneration, not only quickens the soul and imparts life, but takes away
the power of sin. As long as the believer maintains a vital and obedient faith in Christ Jesus, there is no willful sinning.
This can be supported by a number of New Testament references, particularly those found in 1 John, such as "Whosoever is
born of God doth not commit sin" (1 John 3:9). Even though the remains of sin is yet in his heart, the believer has power
over outward and inward sin together with a measure of peace and hope and love. Dr. Leo Cox writes: "Clearly this is a
part of that perfection toward which every Christian moves when he shall be 'perfect,' even as his Father 'in heaven is
It is clear that this work of regeneration is an inward work of the Holy Ghost. As Victor Reasoner puts it, "Until the Holy Spirit was given at Pentecost neither regeneration nor entire sanctification was
possible."(4) The truth is that Jesus never speaks of His disciples as being in possession of the Holy Spirit prior to Pentecost. In fact He made it unquestionably clear that until He was glorified, the Holy Spirit would not be given (John 7:3 9). The
timing and fulfillment of this was Pentecost.
Reasoner quotes Charles Carter, who declares that, "All of the promises concerning baptism in the Spirit find their
fulfillment in the Pentecostal effusion, but never before." Reasoner then observes: "He [Carter] is persuaded that when
Jesus is recorded in John 20:22 to have breathed upon them, saying, 'receive ye the Holy Ghost,' that He was acting symbolically and in anticipation of Pentecost."(5) However, since Pentecost all who truly belong to Christ have received His Spirit. So it is that Paul assures the believers at Corinth that the Holy Ghost was dwelling within them (1 Cor. 3:16; 6:19), even though it is evident from his description of their spiritual state that they were not as yet entirely sanctified nor perfected in love (1 Cor. 3:1-3). We likewise find the Thessalonian believers enjoying the inward presence of the Holy Spirit at the very time that Paul was praying for their entire sanctification (1 Thes. 1:6; 4:8; 5:23-24). Such inward enjoyment of the Holy Spirit's presence could not have been the experience of the disciples before Pentecost, "for the Holy Ghost was not yet given; because that Jesus was not yet glorified" (John7:39).
3. Initial or Partial Sanctification is sometimes treated as a part of the work of regeneration. Nevertheless, it is also an inward work of the Holy Spirit during conversion and is experienced together with justification and regeneration. H.Orton Wiley, author of Christian Theology, makes the point that when a soul commits willful sin, there is not only a
consciousness of guilt present, but a defilement of the soul that comes about from that committed sin. In the following
statement he explains further the basis for initial sanctification:
|| There must be this initial cleansing, concomitant [or at the same time] with the other blessings of the first work of grace, if this guilt and acquired depravity are to be removed from the sinner. Since that which removes pollution and makes holy is
properly called "sanctification," this first or initial cleansing is [sometimes identified as] "partial" sanctification [Ilnitial cleansing or partial sanctification .... is limited strictly to that guilt and acquired depravity attaching to actual sins, for which the sinner is responsible. It does not refer to the cleansing from original sin or inherited depravity, for which the sinner is not responsible. We may say then that initial or partial sanctification includes in its scope all that acquired pollution which attaches to the sinners own acts; while entire sanctification includes the cleansing from original sin or inherited depravity. Since sin is two-fold--an act, and a state or condition, sanctification must be twofold. There is and can be but two stages in the process of sanctification--initial and entire--the full consummation of the process being rightly known as glorification.(6)
Dr. Leo Cox in his book entitled, John Wesleys Concept of Perfection, ably describes initial sanctification with a little different emphasis. He writes:
|| At the same time that the new life is planted in the soul [in regeneration], God begins the cleansing of sin. The power of sin is broken. Man is made holy, pure, clean, but not entirely so. This cleansing work is the beginning of sanctification. It is holiness begun. It can be called initial because it is just a beginning. This new life exists where some evil is still present.(7)
Mr. Wesley, himself, had much to say about initial sanctification, assuring all that when one is justified, he or she is also
regenerated and sanctified initially. He admonished new believers to push forward to the completion and perfection of this beginning.(8)
This initial sanctification is what the Apostle Paul referred to when he described the Corinthian believers as being
"sanctified." It should be clear to the Bible student that these Corinthian believers were not entirely sanctified at the time Paul was writing to them, for he plainly speaks of them as being "yet carnal" and "babes in Christ." Since this sanctification is found to be an inward work of initial cleansing in the convert's heart, it must be considered as involving more than an outward separation from the world and its sinful lifestyle. No, we must conclude that it is a deeper work than any mere outward cleansing and separation. Rather, it was an inward and supernatural work of the Holy Ghost unknow to the disciples before Pentecost.
4. Adoption is a blessing also found to be included in the first work of grace. Richard Watson assures us that this is "a large and comprehensive blessing." He continues with an explanation:
|| [Our sins had deprived us of our sonship, the favor of God, and our right to the inheritance of eternal life. We had become
strangers, and aliens, and enemies to God. However, upon our return to God, and reconciliation with him, our forfeited
privileges were not only restored, but heightened through the paternal love of God .... Adoption then, is that act by which
we who were enemies, and disinherited, are made the sons of God, and heirs of his eternal glory. "If children then heirs,
heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ."(9)
5. Spirit of Adoption is the final blessing we wish to highlight as a very important part of conversion or first work of grace in the believers heart. We are referring to what Watson identifies as "the inward witness or testimony of the Holy Spirit to the adoption or sonship of believers from which," says he, "flows a comfortable persuasion or conviction of our present acceptance with God and the hope of our future and eternal glory."(10)
Mr. Wesley saw this inward witness as being such an important privilege of the children of God that he wrote at least three
sermons directly pertaining to it. He defines this blessing as follows:
|| The testimony of the Spirit is an inward impression on the soul, whereby the Spirit of God directly witnesses to my spirit
that I am a child of God; that Jesus Christ hath loved me, and given himself for me; that all my sins are blotted out, and I,
even I, am reconciled to God.(11)
Reasoner quotes Joseph Benson, an early Methodist leader, who was likewise persuaded of the same truth.
"... all that receive the remission of sins, and are adopted into God's family, receive the gift of the Holy Ghost, as a Spirit of adoption and regeneration: to assure them of their sonship, and renew them after God's image."(12)
Since the indwelling presence of the Holy Spirit alone enables believers to enjoy this blessing, the disciples again would
not have experienced it before Pentecost. However, true believers of this Holy Ghost dispensation are more highly favored with this added blessing of the Spirit of Adoption.
Dr. Kenneth Collins, Professor of Church History at Asbury Theological Seminary, supports Mr. Wesleys view that "the
witness of the Spirit, which is the privilege--though many are ignorant of it--of all who believe."(13) Among several
passages of Scripture that teach and support this truth we mention but two.
Romans 8:15-16 states, "For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear, but the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father. The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit that we are the children of God." Likewise in Galatians 4:5-6 we read, "But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law to redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons; and because ye are sons God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father."
"To these," writes Richard Watson, "are to be added all those passages, so numerous in the New Testament, which express
the confidence and the joy of Christians." For illustration, he then mentions "their friendship with God; their confident
access to him as their God; their entire union, and delightful [fellowshipl with him in spirit."(14)
After Peter finished his sermon on the Day of Pentecost, his listeners were "pricked in their hearts." In other words they were under conviction and full of fear. They asked, "Men and brethren, what shall we do?" Peter answered, "Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost" (Acts 2:37, 38). We believe this passage, among others, demonstrates that all true penitents receive the Spirit when initially converted. Paul, writing under divine inspiration, adds authority to this truth when he assures the Roman church that "if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his" (Romans 8:9).
Mr. Wesley boldly asserts that one was not yet a Christian if he had not received the Holy Ghost. He assures his readers
that a Christian is one who is "anointed with the Holy Ghost and power."(15) "I assert," said he "that till a man 'receives the
Holy Ghost, he is without God in the world."(16)
Commenting on Acts 1:5, "Ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost, "Wesley says, "And so are all true believers to the
end of the world."(17) This was the historical view, not only of early Methodists and early Wesleyan Methodists, but also the view of the Church Fathers and eminent saints throughout church history. It continues to be the view of those who closely adhere to the Wesleyan Arminian persuasion.
In the New Testament epistles we find believers being exhorted to go on to perfection. We find the Apostle Paul praying that
the Thessalonians might be sanctified wholly, but we never find believers being exhorted to receive or be baptized in the
Holy Spirit. Rather they are commanded in Ephesians 5:18 to be continually filled with the Spirit. The Apostle Paul was referring to every believer of the Church body when he assured his readers that, "by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body..." (1 Corinthians 12:13). It is clear that having been powerfully raised from spiritual death to spiritual life by the miracle of the new birth, regenerated believers are in present possession of the Holy Spirit. By their continuing faithful to the grace given them, the same Holy Spirit who began His work within them will continue that work so as to faithfully lead them on to perfection. "Faithful is he that calleth you," writes the Apostle, "who also will do it" (1 Thessalonians 5:24).
There are those who would contend that the experience of the original disciples before and after Pentecost provide a model
or pattern for today. Robert Lyon, professor of biblical interpretation at Asbury Theological Seminary, answers this by
offering "two observations," that he says "make this impossible: 1. the model is not followed elsewhere in Acts or the early Church; 2. it fails to consider the significance of Pentecost as the once-for-all inaugurative event which establishes the
In the final analysis we conclude that it is not scriptural to equate the experience of regenerated believers in this Holy
Ghost dispensation with the experience of the disciples before Pentecost. The dispensation of the Father, or Jewish
dispensation, afforded its blessings. The dispensation of the Son, enjoyed by the disciples while in the presence of Jesus,
provided greater blessings. But the dispensation of the Holy Ghost outshines all former dispensations, showering even the
new believer with blessings and privileges unavailable to those living in all former dispensations of inferior blessing.
1. John Wesley, The Works of John Wesley, authorized edition published by the Wesleyan Conference, London, 1872 (14 vol.; photo offset edition; Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1858), VIII, p. 284 BACK
2. Ibid. V, p. 57 BACK
3. Leo G. Cox, John Wesley's Concept of Perfection, (Kansas City: Beacon Hill, 1964), p. 79. BACK
4. Victor Reasoner, The Hole in the Holiness Movement, (Evansville: Fundamental Wesleyan Publisher, 1991), p. 37. BACK
5. Ibid. P. 39. BACK
6. H. Orton Wiley, Christian Theology, (Kansas City: Beacon Hill Press, 1952), Vol. II., pp. 480-81 BACK
7. Cox, op. cit., (Kansas City: Beacon Hill, 1964), p. 81. BACK
8. Ibid. p. 83. BACK
9. Richard Watson, Theological Institutes, (New York: Phillips & Hunt., Cincinnati: Cranston & Stowe, 1850), p. 269. BACK
10. Ibid. p. 270 BACK
11. Wesley, op. cit., V. p. 115 BACK
12. Kenneth Collins, The Scripture Way of Salvation, ( Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1997), p. 134 BACK
13. Watson, op. cit., p. 270 BACK
14. Wesley, op. cit., V. p. 30 BACK
15. Wesley, op. cit., VIII. p. 106 BACK
16. Reasoner, op. cit., p. 34. BACK
17. John Wesley, Explanatory Notes upon the New Testament, (London: The Epworth Press, 1966), p. 393. BACK
18. Robert Lyon, "Baptism and Spirit Baptism in the New Testament," Wesleyan Theological Journal, Spring of 1979, p. 25. BACK
Joseph D. McPherson, a retired educator, came from a family whose Methodist ancestry reaches back more than two centuries. He grew up in a Methodist parsonage and took an interest in the history and doctrines of early Methodism when reaching young adulthood. For almost four decades he has shared the fruit of his studies in early Methodist literature through seminars, campus lectures, and the writing of numerous articles for church periodicals. He and his wife, Margaret, are the parents of two grown sons who are presently involved in church ministries of music and preaching. If you need more information concerning this article please feel free to write to Mr. McPherson.